[183], Some authors have stated that heavy losses in carriers and veteran aircrews at Midway permanently weakened the Imperial Japanese Navy. For instance, cryptanalysis made possible the shooting down of Admiral Yamamoto's airplane in 1943. [87] In addition, the arrival of another land-based American air strike at 07:53 gave weight to the need to attack the island again. [158], On the return of the Japanese fleet to Hashirajima on 14 June the wounded were immediately transferred to naval hospitals; most were classified as "secret patients", placed in isolation wards and quarantined from other patients and their own families to keep this major defeat secret. In an effort to change the course of the war, a United States carrier group is positioned off the coast of Midway, tasked with springing a … [60], Nine B-17s took off from Midway at 12:30 for the first air attack. [131], After futile attempts at controlling the blaze, most of the crew remaining on Hiryū were evacuated and the remainder of the fleet continued sailing northeast in an attempt to intercept the American carriers. [51] Since early 1942, the U.S. had been decoding messages stating that there would soon be an operation at objective "AF". In the late afternoon of 6 June, the Japanese submarine I-168, which had managed to slip through the cordon of destroyers (possibly because of the large amount of debris in the water), fired a salvo of torpedoes, two of which struck Yorktown. "[117] Another bomb exploded underwater very close astern; the resulting geyser bent the flight deck upward "in grotesque configurations" and caused crucial rudder damage. Nimitz calculated that the aircraft on his three carriers, plus those on Midway Island, gave the U.S. rough parity with Yamamoto's four carriers, mainly because American carrier air groups were larger than Japanese ones. [18] It required the careful and timely coordination of multiple battle groups over hundreds of miles of open sea. The torpedo bombers were armed with torpedoes should any American warships be located. Tinker Air Force Base, outside Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is named in honor of Major General Clarence L. Tinker, Commander, 7th Air Force, who personally led a bomber strike from Hawaii against the retreating Japanese forces on 7 June. ¡online película gratis | Descargar pelicula HD!. Towards the end of the day, he launched a search-and-destroy mission to seek out any remnants of Nagumo's carrier force. [38], Historians Jonathan Parshall and Anthony Tully believe that by combining the surviving aircraft and pilots from Shōkaku and Zuikaku, it is likely that Zuikaku could have been equipped with almost a full composite air group. La distancia entre las fuerzas de Kondō y Yamamoto y los portaaviones de Nagumo tuvo consecuencias graves durante la batalla, porque se le negó a este último la inestimable capacidad de los aviones de reconocimiento transportados por los cruceros y portaaviones, así como la capacidad antiaérea adicional que ofrecían los cruceros junto a los dos acorazados clase Kongō. The strike from Hornet, led by Commander Stanhope C. Ring, followed an incorrect heading of 265 degrees rather than the 240 degrees indicated by the contact report. [43]​, Para el 4 de junio, la Armada había estacionado en Midway cuatro escuadrones de Consolidated PBY Catalina —31 aviones en total— para tareas de reconocimiento de largo alcance, y seis Grumman TBF Avenger nuevos del 8.º Escuadrón Torpedero del Hornet. Este ataque, aunque militarmente insignificante, fue un duro golpe psicológico para la población japonesa porque demostró la inseguridad a la que estaban expuestas las islas niponas. Akagi, having been struck by only one bomb, took longer to burn, but the resulting fires quickly expanded and soon proved impossible to extinguish; she too was eventually consumed by flames and had to be abandoned. Ensign George H. Gay, Jr. was the only survivor of the 30 aircrew of VT-8. Rear Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi, together with the ship's captain, Tomeo Kaku, chose to go down with the ship, costing Japan perhaps its best carrier officer. Sin embargo, las operaciones de preparación y lanzamiento de aviones podían llegar a durar entre treinta y cuarenta y cinco minutos y los pilotos japoneses de la primera oleada comenzaban a regresar. fu combattuta durante la seconda guerra mondiale, tra il 4 e il 7 giugno 1942, presso le isole Midway, dove la Marina degli Stati Uniti respinse l'attacco della Marina imperiale giapponese. Nimitz knew that the Japanese had negated their numerical advantage by dividing their ships into four separate task groups, too widely separated to be able to support each other. When the battle ends, the fight for survival begins El ataque, que duró seis minutos, fue devastador: tres de los cuatro portaaviones japoneses estaban en llamas, inoperantes y fuera de combate. Sailors, including Ensign John d'Arc Lorenz called it an incalculable inspiration: "For the first time I realized what the flag meant: all of us—a million faces—all our effort—a whisper of encouragement. She was discovered early the next morning by an aircraft from the escort carrier Hōshō, prompting hopes she could be saved, or at least towed back to Japan. [97]​[95]​, El programa de entrenamiento previo a la guerra había formado pilotos de excepcional calidad para la aviación naval del Imperio japonés. During this pivotal battle, the two-man crew of a … Even if Nagumo had not strictly followed carrier doctrine, he could not have prevented the launch of the American attack. Third, many of the Zeros ran low on ammunition and fuel. The distance between Yamamoto and Kondo's forces and Nagumo's carriers had grave implications during the battle: the invaluable reconnaissance capability of the scout planes carried by the cruisers and carriers, as well as the additional antiaircraft capability of the cruisers and the other two battleships of the Kongō-class in the trailing forces, was unavailable to Nagumo. [140] At about the same time as this change of course, Tambor was sighted and during maneuvers designed to avoid a submarine attack, the heavy cruisers Mogami and Mikuma collided, inflicting serious damage on Mogami's bow. [153] Also, by this time Spruance's destroyers were critically low on fuel. [102] Remarkably, senior Navy and Bureau of Ordnance officers never questioned why half a dozen torpedoes, released so close to the Japanese carriers, produced no results. [110], McClusky's decision to continue the search and his judgment, in the opinion of Admiral Chester Nimitz, "decided the fate of our carrier task force and our forces at Midway ..."[111] All three American dive-bomber squadrons (VB-6, VS-6, and VB-3) arrived almost simultaneously at the perfect time, locations and altitudes to attack. Artist Mike Phillips. [157], The Japanese public and much of the military command structure were kept in the dark about the extent of the defeat: Japanese news announced a great victory. Check other buying options. Nel giugno del 1942, sei mesi dopo la sua vittoria a Pearl Harbor, la marina imperiale giapponese preparò una nuova offensiva per annientare le forze aeree e … [175][176], The Battle of Midway has often been called "the turning point of the Pacific". Este requería la coordinación cuidadosa y oportuna de muchos grupos a cientos de kilómetros en mar abierto. [13], This, and other successful hit-and-run raids by American carriers in the South Pacific, showed that they were still a threat, although seemingly reluctant to be drawn into an all-out battle. El nuevo código, que tardó varios días en ser descifrado, entró en uso el 24 de mayo, pero para ese entonces los mensajes más importantes ya se habían decodificado. Soon after being spotted, Hiryū sank. Chūichi Nagumo's detailed battle report was submitted to the high command on 15 June. Second, the poor control of the Japanese combat air patrol (CAP) meant they were out of position for subsequent attacks. Chicago Municipal Airport, important to the war effort in World War II, was renamed Chicago Midway International Airport (or simply Midway Airport) in 1949 in honor of the battle. Had Japan won the battle as thoroughly as the U.S. did, it might have been able to conquer Midway Island. Las reparaciones continuaron incluso una vez que salió del astillero, a cargo de un equipo que seguía a bordo del USS Vestal, un buque de reparación dañado en el ataque a Pearl Harbor. Aunque el portaaviones Zuikaku escapó de la batalla sin daños, había perdido casi la mitad de su grupo aéreo y en el puerto de Kure estaba esperando aviones y pilotos de reemplazo. Da una storia vera. Det fandt sted seks måneder efter det japanske angreb på Pearl Harbor , der førte til krigstilstand mellem Japan og USA, og omkring en måned efter slaget ved Koralhavet . [56], At about 09:00 on 3 June, Ensign Jack Reid, piloting a PBY from U.S. Navy patrol squadron VP-44,[59] spotted the Japanese Occupation Force 500 nautical miles (580 miles; 930 kilometers) to the west-southwest of Midway. The new carriers being built were redesigned to incorporate only two flight deck elevators and new firefighting equipment. En parte por la prisa de Yamamoto, un piquete de submarinos exploradores llegó tarde a su posición en French Frigate Shoals. Simultaneously, he detached a cruiser raiding force to bombard the island. Directed by Roland Emmerich, who produced the film with Harald Kloser, it is written by Wes Tooke. [47] A second attempt at reconnaissance, using four-engine H8K "Emily" flying boats to scout Pearl Harbor prior to the battle and detect whether the American carriers were present, part of Operation K, was thwarted when Japanese submarines assigned to refuel the search aircraft discovered that the intended refueling point—a hitherto deserted bay off French Frigate Shoals—was now occupied by American warships because the Japanese had carried out an identical mission in March. The Battle of Midway, along with the Guadalcanal campaign, is widely considered a turning point in the Pacific War. This led to a sharp decline in the quality of the aviators produced. Dauntless / La Battaglia Di Midway DVD. [197], Waldron Field, an outlying training landing strip at Corpus Christi NAS, as well as Waldron Road leading to the strip, was named in honor of John C. Waldron, the commander of USS Hornet's Torpedo Squadron 8. More carrier crew members were trained in damage-control and firefighting techniques, although the losses later in the war of Shōkaku, Hiyō, and especially Taihō suggest that there were still problems in this area. [169] Osmus was slated for the same fate; however, he resisted and was murdered on the Arashi with a fire ax, with his body being thrown overboard. However, considering the increased strength of American land-based airpower on the Hawaiian Islands since the 7 December attack the previous year, he judged that it was now too risky to attack Pearl Harbor directly. 1. This operation was also considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji, Samoa, and Hawaii itself. [52]​[Nota 1]​, Además, los portaaviones de Nagumo sufrieron varias deficiencias defensivas que en palabras del historiador Mark Peattie, le hicieron tener una «mandíbula de cristal, podía dar un puñetazo pero no podía recibir uno». [61], Under heavy anti-aircraft fire, they dropped their bombs. A partir de Midway la iniciativa en el Pacífico pasó a ser siempre de los estadounidenses, hasta la rendición de Japón en 1945. Consequently, even the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) continued to believe, for at least a short time, that the fleet was in good condition. [204][205][206] Ford, who was a Navy Reserve Commander at the time, was present on Midway Atoll's power plant at Sand Island during the Japanese attack and filmed it. ¡Compre ahora! "[124] Captain Buckmaster had his signalmen hoist a huge new (10 feet wide and 15 feet long) American flag from the foremast. By June 1942, the Japanese Navy has swept across the Pacific. [36] The Marine Corps stationed 19 Douglas SBD Dauntless, seven F4F-3 Wildcats, 17 Vought SB2U Vindicators, and 21 Brewster F2A Buffalos. [76]​[77]​, Al mismo tiempo, mientras la indecisión se apoderaba del mando japonés, desde las 07:00 el almirante Fletcher había puesto en marcha a los aviones del Yorktown para que atacasen a los portaaviones japoneses. [8]​[9]​, En la estrategia de Yamamoto el objetivo principal era eliminar los portaaviones estadounidenses, a los que veía como la amenaza más importante para la campaña del Pacífico. Captain Buckmaster's American flag was still flying. El ejército las ocupó para dejar a Japón fuera del alcance de los bombarderos desplegados en Alaska. [108], By chance, at the same time VT-3 was sighted by the Japanese, three squadrons of SBDs from Enterprise and Yorktown were approaching from the southwest and northeast. VAT included - FREE Shipping. Unfortunately sold out. Naval Oceanographic Office searched for the Japanese aircraft carriers. Despite Hiryū being defended by a strong cover of more than a dozen Zero fighters, the attack by Enterprise and orphaned Yorktown aircraft launched from Enterprise was successful: four bombs (possibly five) hit Hiryū, leaving her ablaze and unable to operate aircraft. With further salvage efforts deemed hopeless, the remaining repair crews were evacuated from Yorktown. Later evidence suggests Nagumo did not receive the sighting report until 08:00. [104][105], Despite their failure to score any hits, the American torpedo attacks achieved three important results. Hiryū's first attack wave, consisting of 18 D3As and six fighter escorts, followed the retreating American aircraft and attacked the first carrier they encountered, Yorktown, hitting her with three bombs, which blew a hole in the deck, snuffed out all but one of her boilers, and destroyed one anti-aircraft mount. [63], Midway's radar picked up the enemy at a distance of several miles, and interceptors were scrambled. It was intended only for the highest echelons in the Japanese Navy and government and was guarded closely throughout the war. As soon as Tambor returned to port, Spruance had Murphy relieved of duty and reassigned to a shore station, citing his confusing contact report, poor torpedo shooting during his attack run, and general lack of aggression, especially as compared to Nautilus, the oldest of the 12 boats at Midway and the only one which had successfully placed a torpedo on target (albeit a dud). ADD TO WISHLIST. By June 1942, the Japanese Navy has swept across the Pacific. Slaget var fremkaldt af Japan og varede fra 4. til 7. juni 1942 . [32]​[33]​ Nimitz también convocó a la fuerza operativa del contraalmirante Frank Jack Fletcher, del área suroeste del Pacífico, que tenía al portaviones Yorktown. Por el contrario, Yamamoto y Kondō tenían en sus flotas dos portaaviones ligeros, cinco acorazados, cuatro cruceros pesados y dos cruceros ligeros, de los cuales ninguno participó en la batalla. [23], What Yamamoto did not know was that the U.S. had broken parts of the main Japanese naval code (dubbed JN-25 by the Americans), divulging many details of his plan to the enemy. [31]​, El almirante Nimitz necesitaba cada cubierta de vuelo disponible para luchar contra los cuatro o cinco portaaviones que Japón podía llevar a la batalla. [20], Yamamoto felt deception would be required to lure the U.S. fleet into a fatally compromised situation. These factors meant all carriers of the Kido Butai had fewer aircraft than their normal complement, with few spare aircraft or parts stored in the carriers' hangars. He was killed when his aircraft crashed near Midway Island. I looked up to see three black enemy planes plummeting towards our ship. Después de recibir dos impactos de torpedos el Yorktown quedó fuera de combate, por lo que el almirante Fletcher se vio obligado a trasladar a su personal al crucero pesado USS Astoria. [100], The Japanese combat air patrol, flying Mitsubishi A6M2 Zeros,[101] made short work of the unescorted, slow, under-armed TBDs. The first plane took off from Spruance's carriers Enterprise and Hornet a few minutes after 07:00. The D3A was normally referred to by the Japanese as. [98] Meanwhile, VT-6, led by LCDR Eugene E. Lindsey lost nine of its 14 Devastators (one ditched later), and 10 of 12 Devastators from Yorktown's VT-3 (who attacked at 10:10) were shot down with no hits to show for their effort, thanks in part to the abysmal performance of their unimproved Mark 13 torpedoes. [83]​ A las 10:22 los bombarderos del Enterprise atacaron el Kaga, mientras que en el sur los del Yorktown cayeron sobre el Sōryū y el Akagi, que también recibió los impactos de los bombarderos del Enterprise cuatro minutos después. [92], Fletcher, along with Yorktown's commanding officer, Captain Elliott Buckmaster, and their staffs, had acquired the first-hand experience needed in organizing and launching a full strike against an enemy force in the Coral Sea, but there was no time to pass these lessons on to Enterprise and Hornet which were tasked with launching the first strike. Air Group Commander C. Wade McClusky, Jr. decided to continue the search, and by good fortune spotted the wake of the Japanese destroyer Arashi, steaming at full speed to rejoin Nagumo's carriers after having unsuccessfully depth-charged U.S. submarine Nautilus, which had unsuccessfully attacked the battleship Kirishima. She was renamed St. Sin embargo, la artillería antiaérea estaba lista y consiguió derribar varios aviones atacantes. [148] The heavy cruisers Mikuma (sunk; 700 casualties) and Mogami (badly damaged; 92) accounted for another 792 deaths. Algunos hidroaviones se perdieron de los cruceros Chikuma y Tone —3 y 2 respectivamente—, mientras que los muertos a bordo de los destructores Tanikaze, Arashi, Kazagumo y el Akebono Maru sumaron las restantes 23 víctimas. Directed by Mike Phillips. Il 4 giugno 1942 la battaglia delle Midway ha inizio: la base viene colpita duramente dai bombardieri giapponesi, e il regista John Ford viene gravemente ferito mentre sta girando il suo documentario, ma i bombardieri decollati dall'isola, che fanno parte sia dei Marines, sia della USAAF, sia della Marina, prima dell'arrivo dei nemici attaccano a loro volta la flotta nipponica, subendo però gravissime perdite. After winning a clear victory, and as pursuit became too hazardous near Wake,[150] American forces retired. Luego de la invasión, muchos estadounidenses temían que desde allí los japoneses ataquen objetivos estratégicos y centros urbanos a lo largo de la costa oeste. [23]​ Por ejemplo, a pesar de que se esperaba que los portaaviones de Nagumo soportaran la peor parte de los contraataques, los únicos buques de la flota que eran más grandes que los doce destructores que los encubrían eran dos acorazados rápidos de clase Kongō, dos cruceros pesados y un crucero ligero. Al principio todos se preguntaban que significaba o qué lugar era «AF», pero más tarde el comandante Joseph Rochefort y su equipo en la estación HYPO pudieron confirmar que se trataba de Midway. [25], In order to obtain support from the Imperial Japanese Army for the Midway operation, the Imperial Japanese Navy agreed to support their invasion of the United States through the Aleutian Islands of Attu and Kiska, part of the organized incorporated Alaska Territory. [21] To this end, he dispersed his forces so that their full extent (particularly his battleships) would be concealed from the Americans prior to battle. [91] Fletcher, upon completing his own scouting flights, followed suit at 08:00 from Yorktown. [88]​ Por la mañana, el submarino lanzó un ataque con torpedos contra los cruceros, sin éxito, pero en los días siguientes la aviación de la isla, junto a la de los portaaviones, realizaron varios ataques a los cruceros, hundiendo al Mikuma y dejando gravemente dañado al Mogami. Ver opiniones y detalles sobre la gran selección de Blu-ray y DVD, nuevos o de 2ª mano. [55], Japan had a new codebook, but its introduction had been delayed, enabling HYPO to read messages for several crucial days; the new code, which took several days to be cracked, came into use on 24 May, but the important breaks had already been made. Midway allowed this to occur before the first of the new Essex-class fleet carriers became available at the end of 1942. The other carrier was not sighted. [4]​[5]​[6]​[7]​ Tras una velada amenaza de dimisión, el almirante Yamamoto logró imponer su opinión y enseguida se puso en marcha su plan para expandir el poderío japonés a través del océano Pacífico central. Trama La trama di Dauntless - La battaglia di Midway (2019). Midway no era especialmente importante en el expansionismo territorial de Japón,[12]​[13]​ pero supuso que ante un ataque Estados Unidos defendería el atolón con mucha fuerza, así que una eventual victoria permitiría destruir parte importante de la flota enemiga. Por su parte, y pese a las grandes pérdidas, el almirante Yamamoto decidió inicialmente continuar con sus esfuerzos para ocupar Midway y envió sus navíos de batalla en busca de los portaaviones estadounidenses, al mismo tiempo que una flota de cruceros era desplegada para bombardear la isla. Los japoneses generalmente se referían al D3A como «bombardero en picado embarcado Tipo 99», al B5N como «bombardero de ataque embarcado Tipo 97» y al A6M como «caza embarcado Tipo 0», por esa razón a este último también se le conoce conoce coloquialmente como «Zero». Admiral Fletcher, obliged to abandon the derelict Yorktown and feeling he could not adequately command from a cruiser, ceded operational command to Spruance.